Bibliography

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Book Chapter
Jr. JCairns.  1974.  Bioassays. Environmental Engineers Handbook. 1:258-270.
Jr. JCairns.  1983.  The case for simultaneous toxicity testing at different levels of biological organization. Aquatic Toxicology and Hazard Assessment: Sixth Symposium. Special Technical Publication 802:17pp..
Niederlehner B.R, Jr. JCairns, Jr. A.LBuikema, Pratt JR.  1986.  Comparison of estimates of hazard derived at three levels of complexity. Community Toxicity Testing. Special Technical Publication 920:30-48.
Niederlehner B.R, Jr. JCairns, Jr. A.LBuikema, Pratt JR.  1986.  Comparison of estimates of hazard derived at three levels of complexity. Community Toxicity Testing. Special Technical Publication 920:30-48.
Jr. JCairns, Pratt JR.  1986.  Developing a sampling strategy. Rationale for Sampling and Interpretation of Ecological Data in the Assessment of Freshwater Ecosystems. Special Technical Publication 894:168-186.
McCormick PV, Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1986.  Effect of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol on the structure and function of protozoan communities established on artificial substrates. Community Toxicity Testing. Special Technical Publication 920:224-240.
McCormick PV, Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1986.  Effect of 3-trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol on the structure and function of protozoan communities established on artificial substrates. Community Toxicity Testing. Special Technical Publication 920:224-240.
Jr. JCairns.  1971.  Factors affecting the number of species in freshwater protozoan communities. Structure and Function of Freshwater Microbial Communities. :219-247.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1977.  Factors affecting the number of species in freshwater protozoan communities. Aquatic Microbial Communities. :257-304.
Jr. JCairns.  1971.  Factors affecting the number of species in freshwater protozoan communities. Structure and Function of Freshwater Microbial Communities. :219-247.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1977.  Factors affecting the number of species in freshwater protozoan communities. Aquatic Microbial Communities. :257-304.
Jr. JCairns.  1984.  Freshwater biological monitoring: keynote address. Freshwater Biological Monitoring. :1-14.
Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Freshwater protozoan communities. Microbial Interactions and Communities. :249-285.
Jr. JCairns, Henebry MS.  1982.  Interactive and noninteractive protozoan colonization processes. Artificial Substrates. :23-70.
Jr. JCairns, Henebry MS.  1982.  Interactive and noninteractive protozoan colonization processes. Artificial Substrates. :23-70.
Jr. JCairns.  1978.  The modification of inland waters. Wildlife and America. :146-162.
Jr. JCairns, Lanza GR.  1972.  Pollution controlled changes in algal and protozoan communities. Water Pollution Microbiology. :245-272.
Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Predictive and reactive systems for aquatic ecosystem quality control. Scientific Basis of Water-Resource Management, Geophysics Study Commission, National Resource Council. :72-84.
Jr. JCairns, Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL.  1979.  Protozoan colonization of artificial substrates. Methods and Measurements of Periphyton Communities: A Review. Special Technical Publication 690:34-57.
Jr. JCairns.  1974.  Protozoans (Protozoa). Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. :1-28.
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Lanza GR.  1973.  Rapid biological monitoring system for determining aquatic community structure in receiving systems. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:148-163of256pp..
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Lanza GR.  1973.  Rapid biological monitoring system for determining aquatic community structure in receiving systems. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:148-163of256pp..
Jr. JCairns, Dahlberg M.L, Dickson KL, Smith N, Waller WT.  1983.  The relationship of freshwater protozoan communities to the MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium model. Diversity Hutchinson. :272-287.
Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Restoration of damaged ecosystems. Research on Fish and Wildlife Habitat. EPA-600/8-82-022:220-239.
Jr. JCairns.  1979.  A strategy for use of protozoans in the evaluation of hazardous substances. Biological Indicators of Water Quality. :61-67.
Jr. JCairns, Sparks R.E, Waller WT.  1973.  A tentative proposal for a rapid in-plant biological monitoring system. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:127-147of256pp..
Jr. JCairns, Sparks R.E, Waller WT.  1973.  A tentative proposal for a rapid in-plant biological monitoring system. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:127-147of256pp..
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1988.  Use of microbial colonization parameters as a measure of functional response in aquatic ecosystems. Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals. Special Technical Publication 988:55-67.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1988.  Use of microbial colonization parameters as a measure of functional response in aquatic ecosystems. Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals. Special Technical Publication 988:55-67.
Conference Paper
Dickson KL, Maki AW, Jr. JCairns.  1979.  Analyzing the Hazard Evaluation Process. International Workshop on the Application of Hazard Evaluation Programs for Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment.
Conference Proceedings
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL.  1973.  Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. The Symposium on Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:256.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Determining microbial community equilibrium in disturbed wetland ecosystems. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference on Wetland Restoration. :201-209.
Jr. JCairns.  1973.  Le maintien de l'equilibre dans les communatis protozoaires d'eau douce. Progress in Protozoology, Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Protozoology. :74pp..
Dickson KL, Maki AW, Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Modeling the Fate of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment. The Fourth Pellston Environmental Workshop. :ix+413.
Jr. JCairns, Pratt JR.  1985.  Multispecies toxicity testing using indigenous organisms - a new, cost-effective approach to ecosystem protection. 1985 TAPPI Environmental Conference. :149-159.
Journal Article
Genter RB, Pratt JR, Bowers N, Jr. JCairns.  1989.  Algal and protozoan community response to individual and combined treatment of zinc and phosphate. Current Practices in Environmental Science and Engineering. 4:133-149.
Jr. JCairns, Calhoun WFord, McGinniss MJ, Straka W.  1976.  Aquatic organisms response to severe stress following acutely sublethal toxicant exposure. Water Resource Bulletin. 12:1233-1243.
Jr. JCairns.  1984.  Are single species toxicity tests alone adequate for estimating environmental hazard? Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 4(3):259-273.
Jr. JCairns, Ruthven JA.  1970.  Artificial microhabitat size and the number of colonizing protozoan species. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 89:100-109.
Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Artificial Substrates. Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Ann Arbor, Mich. 279 pp.
Jr. JCairns, van der Schalie WHenry.  1980.  Biological monitoring. Part I. Early warning systems. Water Research. 14:1179-1196.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1966.  A checklist of the fresh-water protozoa of the Douglas Lake region, Michigan. Notulae Naturae of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 383:1-10.
Pratt JR, Ladzick M, Jr. JCairns.  1987.  Colonization of artificial substrates by micrometazoa. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 110:519-531.
Jr. JCairns, Plafkin JL, Jr. WHYongue, Kaesler RL.  1976.  Colonization of artificial substrates by protozoa: replicated samples. Archiv fur Protistenkunde. 118:259-267.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1971.  Colonization of polyurethane substrates by fresh-water protozoans. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 87:71-72.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1976.  A comparison between numbers and kinds of freshwater protozoans colonizing autoclaved and unautoclaved polyurethane substrates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 31:750-753.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns, Jr. HBoatin.  1973.  A comparison of fresh-water protozoan communities in geographically proximate but chemically dissimilar bodies of water. Archiv fur Protistenkunde. 115:154-161.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns, Schwintzer CR, Jr. WHYongue.  1981.  A comparison of vascular vegetation and protozoan communities in some freshwater wetlands of northern lower Michigan. Hydrobiologia. 83:353-375.
Smith EP, Genter RB, Jr. JCairns.  1986.  Confidence intervals for the similarity between algal communities. Hydrobiologia. 139:237-245.
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Jr. WHYongue.  1971.  The consequences of nonselective periodic removal of portions of fresh-water protozoan communities. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 90:71-80.
Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. JCairns.  1978.  Consolidating taxonomic information into a working library. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 97:417-418.
Jr. JCairns.  1980.  Coping with point source discharges. Fisheries. 5(6):5-8.
Jr. JCairns.  1975.  Critical species, including man, within the biosphere. Naturwissenschaften. 62(5):193-199.
Stewart PM, Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns, Lowe RL.  1985.  Diatom and protozoan species accrual on artificial substrates in lentic habitats. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 104(4):369-377.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1968.  The distribution of fresh-water protozoa on a relatively homogeneous substrate. Hydrobiologia. 31:65-72.
Jr. JCairns, Ruthven JA, Kaesler RL.  1974.  Distribution of protozoa in a small stream. The American Midlands Naturalist. 92:406-414.
Jr. JCairns, Plafkin JL, Kaesler RL, Lowe RL.  1983.  Early colonization patterns of diatoms and protozoans in fourteen freshwater lakes. Journal of Protozoology. 30:47-51.
Jr. JCairns.  1979.  Ecological considerations in reclaiming surface mined lands. Minerals and the Environment. 1(3):83-89.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1973.  The effect of an influx of new species on the diversity of protozoan communities. Revista de Biologia. 9:187-206.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1980.  The effect of island size, distance and epicenter maturity on colonization in freshwater protozoan communities. The American Midlands Naturalist. 104:80-92.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1980.  The effect of source pool maturity on the process of island colonization: an experimental approach with protozoan communities. Oikos. 35:107-114.
Jr. JCairns, Hart KM, Henebry MS.  1980.  The effects of a sublethal dose of copper sulfate on the colonization rate of freshwater protozoan communities. The American Midlands Naturalist. 104:93-101.
Jr. JCairns, Paterson RA.  1971.  The effects of heated waste waters upon microbial communities. Water Resources Research in Virginia. 46:121-126.
Dickson KL, Jr. JCairns, Gregg BC, Messenger DI, Plafkin JL, van der Schalie WHenry.  1977.  Effects of intermittent chlorination on aquatic organisms and communities. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation. 49:35-44.
Jr. JCairns, van der Schalie WHenry, Westlake G.F.  1975.  The effects of lapsed time since feeding upon the toxicity of zinc to fish. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 13(3):269-274.
Jr. JCairns, Messenger DI.  1974.  The effects of prior exposure to sublethal concentrations of toxicants upon the tolerance of snails to thermal shock. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 77:441-447.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue, Smith N.  1976.  The effects of substrate quality upon colonization by freshwater protozoans. Revista de Biologia. 10(1-4):13-20.
Jr. RWPaul, Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. JCairns, Croxdale JG.  1977.  Evaluation of natural and artificial substrate colonization by scanning electron microscopy. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 96:506-519.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1983.  Export of species from sources of differing maturities. Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin. 30:78(Abstr.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Export of species to islands from sources of differing maturity. Hydrobiologia. 121:103-109.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Functional groups in the protozoa: roles in differing ecosystems. Journal of Protozoology. 32(3):415-423.
Jr. JCairns, Kaesler RL, Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. WHYongue.  1976.  The influence of natural perturbation on protozoan communities inhabiting artificial substrates. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 95:646-653.
Jr. JCairns, Messenger DI.  1974.  An interim report on the effects of prior exposure to sublethal concentrations of toxicants upon the tolerance of snails to thermal shock. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 74(4):441-447.
Jr. JCairns, Messenger DI, Calhoun WFord.  1976.  Invertebrate response to thermal shock following exposure to acutely sublethal concentrations of chemicals. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 77:164-175.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1973.  Long term exposure of artificial substrates to colonization by protozoans. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 81:115-119.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Long-term patterns of protozoan colonization in Douglas Lake, Michigan. Journal of Protozoology. 32:95-99.
Hart KM, Jr. JCairns.  1984.  The maintenance of structural integrity in freshwater protozoan communities under stress. Hydrobiologia. 108:171-180.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1971.  Micro-habitat pH differences from those of the surrounding water. Hydrobiologia. 38:453-461.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns, Meier K..  1985.  Migration of species during early colonization. The American Midlands Naturalist. 113:92-101.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1980.  Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 99:151-160.
Jr. JCairns.  1984.  Multispecies toxicity testing. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 65(3):301-304.
Stewart PM, Smith EP, Pratt JR, McCormick PV, Jr. JCairns.  1986.  Multivariate analysis of protist communities in lentic systems. Journal of Protozoology. 33(2):152-156.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1970.  An observation on the protozoan communities in the bottom sediments of Lake Huron. Revista de Biologia. 7:151-153.
Jr. JCairns, Lanza GR, Parker BC.  1972.  Pollution related structural and functional changes in aquatic communities with emphasis on freshwater algae and protozoa. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 124(5):79-127.
Guth DJ, Blankespoor HD, Jr. JCairns.  1977.  Potentiation of zinc stress caused by parasitic infection of snails. Hydrobiologia. 55:225-229.
Jr. JCairns.  1967.  Probable existence of synergistic interactions among different species of protozoans. Revista de Biologia. 6(1-2):103-108.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue, Jr. HBoatin.  1973.  The protozoan colonization of polyurethane foam units anchored in the benthic area of Douglas Lake, Michigan. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 92:648-656.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1984.  Protozoan colonization rates and trophic status of some freshwater wetland lakes. Journal of Protozoology. 31:456-467.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1974.  Protozoan colonization rates on artificial substrates suspended at different depths. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 93:206-210.
Plafkin JL, Kuhn DL, Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1980.  Protozoan species accrual on artificial islands in differing lentic and wetland systems. Hydrobiologia. 75:161-178.
Jr. JCairns, Pratt JR, Niederlehner B.R.  1985.  A provisional multispecies toxicity test using indigenous organisms. Journal of Testing and Evaluation. 13(4):316-319.
Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. JCairns, Lowe RL.  1981.  Qualitative characterization of aquatic environments using diatom life-form strategies. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 100(2):165-182.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue, Kaesler RL.  1976.  Qualitative differences in protozoan colonization of artificial substrates. Hydrobiologia. 51:233-237.
Jr. JCairns.  1969.  Rate of species diversity restoration following stress in freshwater protozoan communities. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin. 48(6):209-224.