|Title||Bird populations and biotic communities in northern lower Michigan|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1948|
|Authors||S. Kendeigh C|
1. Biotic communities are best delimited by the life-form or structure of the dominant vegetation correlated with the occurrence of distinct groupings of animal species. 2. Biotic communities are named after two characteristic, predominant, and conspicuous animals and the type of vegetation or habitat. 3. The climax biotic community is called a biociation. Seral biotic communities are designated biocies. The biociation may include several "associations" and late seral "associes." The biocies may likewise include several early seral associes. All seral and climax communities in a unit area may be collectively known as a "biome." 4. The composition and density of the bird population were determined for the following communities in northern Lower Michigan: Poa consocies of the Sturnella-Ammodramus grassland biocies. Populus-Acer (rubrum) associes of the Vireo-Seiurus broad-leaved forest biociation. Fagus-Acer-Pinus association of the Vireo-Seiurus broad-leaved forest biociation. Pinus-Populus associes of the broad-leaved forest-needle-leaved forest ecotone. Thuja-Populus associes of the Zonotrichia-Oporornis forest-edge biocies. Thuja-Abies associes of the Dendroica-Regulus needle-leaved forest biociation.