|Title||Chemical and physical characteristics of shallow ground waters in northern Michigan bogs, swamps, and fens|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1982|
|Authors||Schwintzer CR, Tomberlin TJ|
|Journal||American Journal of Botany|
Fifteen chemical and physical characteristics were examined in samples of shallow ground water taken in midsummer at 15-30 cm below the surface in six bogs, 15 swamps, and six fens. The wetland types were identified on the basis of their vegetation. Three groups of covarying water characteristics were identified by factor analysis. Factor 1 included Ca, Mg, Si, pH, alkalinity, conductivity and to a much lesser extent Na, and reflects the degree of telluric water influence in the wetland. Factor 2 included reactive-P, total-P, NH3-N, and to a lesser extent K, and consists of elements that primarily enter interstitial water via organic matter decomposition. Factor 3 included Na, Cl, and to a much lesser extent K. The wetlands formed two distinct groups with respect to water chemistry: weakly minerotrophic (pH 3.8-4.3) including all bogs and moderately to strongly minerotrophic (pH 5.5-7.4) including all swamps and fens. The bogs had very low values for Factor 1 characteristics and moderate values for the remaining characteristics. The swamps and fens had moderate to high values for Factor 1 characteristics and showed considerable overlap in this respect. The fens had consistently low values for Factor 2 characteristics but overlapped with some swamps which also had low Factor 2 scores. Failure to completely separate the vegetationally very distinct swamps and fens from each other on the basis of their physical and chemical water characteristics indicates that another factor, probably water level regime, is of major importance in determining their vegetation type.