|Title||Estimating the Hazard of Chemical Substances to Aquatic Life|
|Year of Publication||1978|
|Authors||Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Maki AW|
|Volume||Spec. Tech. Publ. 657|
|Number of Pages||278|
|Publisher||American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)|
The science of aquatic toxicology is presently in an embryonic, although rapidly evolving, state. The vast majority of testing procedures and protocols now being used to assess the effects of chemical substances on the survival, growth, and reproduction of representative aquatic species were virtually unknown as recently as 10 years ago. The associated risks to aquatic life are being increasingly considered in marketing decisions along with the societal benefits gained from the ultimate use of new chemical substances.