|Title||Relationship of alkaline stress and acute copper toxicity in the snail Goniobasis livescens (Menke)|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1983|
|Authors||Paulson P.C, Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns|
|Journal||Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology|
Organism response to toxic compounds is routinely tested in highly controlled laboratory tests conducted under rigorous standards. Toxicants are rarely present in nature in singular doses, and stresses on particular organisms may come from a variety of natural and anthropogenic sources. A number of studies have shown alteration of responses to toxicants as a result of multiple assaults or prior stress. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of prior sublethal stress (in this cases, alkaline pH) on the subsequent toxicity of copper. The initial hypothesis was that elevated pH stress would increase susceptibility of test organisms to copper toxicity. Although pH excursions into acid ranges have normally attracted attention, industrial process waters commonly range to pH 11.7. Excursions to pH above 7 may also increase the relative toxicity of other compounds, e.g., ammonia).