Bibliography

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Journal Article
Jr. JCairns.  1978.  Zooperiphyton (especially protozoa) as indicators of water quality. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 97:44-49.
R. Jones C, Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1976.  Vertical gradients in artificial substrate-associated protozoan community structure in a stratified freshwater lake. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 92:1-8.
Jr. JCairns, Ruthven JA.  1972.  A test of the cosmopolitan distribution of freshwater protozoans. Hydrobiologia. 39:405-427.
Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. JCairns.  1978.  A system for recording and processing taxonomic data. Water Resource Bulletin. 14(6):1507-1510.
Jr. WHYongue, Berrent B., Jr. JCairns.  1979.  Survival of Euglena gracilis exposed to sublethal temperature and hexavalent chromium. Journal of Protozoology. 26:122-125.
Batac-Catalan Z, Jr. JCairns.  1977.  Survival of Daphnia pulex under thermal stress and sublethal concentration of chromate. Philippine Journal of Biology. 6(1):47-54.
Stewart PM, McCormick PV, Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1990.  Structural and functional comparisons of protozoan assemblages at three types of sewage treatment plants. Progress in Environmental Science and Technology. 5:129-144.
Jr. JCairns, McCormick PV, Niederlehner B.R, Pratt JR.  1986.  A simple, cost-effective multispecies toxicity test using organisms with a cosmopolitan distribution. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 6:207-220.
Smith EP, Stewart PM, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Similarities between rarefraction methods. Hydrobiologia. 120:167-170.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1978.  The role of flagellates in pioneer protozoan colonization of artificial substrates. Polskie Archiwum Hydrobiologii. 25:787-801.
Jr. JCairns, Beamer T, Churchill S, Ruthven JA.  1971.  Response of protozoans to detergent-enzymes. Hydrobiologia. 38:193-205.
Jr. JCairns, Plafkin JL.  1975.  Response of protozoan communities exposed to chlorine stress. Archiv fur Protistenkunde. 117:47-53.
Jr. JCairns.  1969.  The response of fresh-water protozoan communities to heated waste waters. Chesapeake Science. 10(3/4):177-185.
Ruthven JA, Jr. JCairns.  1973.  Response of fresh-water protozoan artificial communities to metals. Journal of Protozoology. 20:127-135.
Blankespoor HD, Jr. JCairns, Cameron SC.  1985.  Resistance of pulmonate snail populations to repeated treatments of copper sulfate. Environmental Management. 9(5):455-458.
Stewart PM, Smith EP, Jr. JCairns.  1987.  Relationship of the physico-chemical environment to diatom and protozoan communities: a multivariate approach. Archiv fur Protistenkunde. 134:331-341.
Jr. JCairns, Dahlberg M.L, Dickson KL, Smith N, Waller WT.  1969.  The relationship of fresh-water protozoan communities to the MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium model. The American Naturalist. 103:439-454.
Paulson P.C, Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1983.  Relationship of alkaline stress and acute copper toxicity in the snail Goniobasis livescens (Menke). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 31:719-726.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue, Jr. HBoatin.  1973.  The relationship between number of protozoan species and duration of habitat immersion. Revista de Biologia. 9:35-42.
Jr. JCairns.  1983.  Regulating hazardous chemicals in aquatic environments. Environmental Affairs Law Review. 11(1):1-10.
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL.  1970.  Reduction and restoration of the number of fresh-water protozoan species following acute exposure to copper and zinc. Transactions of the Kansas Academy of Science. 73:1-10.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1982.  The rate of species export from islands: an experimental approach with protozoan communities. Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin. 29(2):79.
Jr. JCairns.  1969.  Rate of species diversity restoration following stress in freshwater protozoan communities. The University of Kansas Science Bulletin. 48(6):209-224.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue, Kaesler RL.  1976.  Qualitative differences in protozoan colonization of artificial substrates. Hydrobiologia. 51:233-237.
Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. JCairns, Lowe RL.  1981.  Qualitative characterization of aquatic environments using diatom life-form strategies. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 100(2):165-182.
Jr. JCairns, Pratt JR, Niederlehner B.R.  1985.  A provisional multispecies toxicity test using indigenous organisms. Journal of Testing and Evaluation. 13(4):316-319.
Plafkin JL, Kuhn DL, Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1980.  Protozoan species accrual on artificial islands in differing lentic and wetland systems. Hydrobiologia. 75:161-178.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1974.  Protozoan colonization rates on artificial substrates suspended at different depths. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 93:206-210.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1984.  Protozoan colonization rates and trophic status of some freshwater wetland lakes. Journal of Protozoology. 31:456-467.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue, Jr. HBoatin.  1973.  The protozoan colonization of polyurethane foam units anchored in the benthic area of Douglas Lake, Michigan. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 92:648-656.
Jr. JCairns.  1967.  Probable existence of synergistic interactions among different species of protozoans. Revista de Biologia. 6(1-2):103-108.
Guth DJ, Blankespoor HD, Jr. JCairns.  1977.  Potentiation of zinc stress caused by parasitic infection of snails. Hydrobiologia. 55:225-229.
Jr. JCairns, Lanza GR, Parker BC.  1972.  Pollution related structural and functional changes in aquatic communities with emphasis on freshwater algae and protozoa. Proceedings of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 124(5):79-127.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1970.  An observation on the protozoan communities in the bottom sediments of Lake Huron. Revista de Biologia. 7:151-153.
Stewart PM, Smith EP, Pratt JR, McCormick PV, Jr. JCairns.  1986.  Multivariate analysis of protist communities in lentic systems. Journal of Protozoology. 33(2):152-156.
Jr. JCairns.  1984.  Multispecies toxicity testing. Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America. 65(3):301-304.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1980.  Monitoring of stream pollution using protozoan communities on artificial substrates. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 99:151-160.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns, Meier K..  1985.  Migration of species during early colonization. The American Midlands Naturalist. 113:92-101.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1971.  Micro-habitat pH differences from those of the surrounding water. Hydrobiologia. 38:453-461.
Hart KM, Jr. JCairns.  1984.  The maintenance of structural integrity in freshwater protozoan communities under stress. Hydrobiologia. 108:171-180.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Long-term patterns of protozoan colonization in Douglas Lake, Michigan. Journal of Protozoology. 32:95-99.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1973.  Long term exposure of artificial substrates to colonization by protozoans. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 81:115-119.
Jr. JCairns, Messenger DI, Calhoun WFord.  1976.  Invertebrate response to thermal shock following exposure to acutely sublethal concentrations of chemicals. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 77:164-175.
Jr. JCairns, Messenger DI.  1974.  An interim report on the effects of prior exposure to sublethal concentrations of toxicants upon the tolerance of snails to thermal shock. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 74(4):441-447.
Jr. JCairns, Kaesler RL, Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. WHYongue.  1976.  The influence of natural perturbation on protozoan communities inhabiting artificial substrates. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 95:646-653.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Functional groups in the protozoa: roles in differing ecosystems. Journal of Protozoology. 32(3):415-423.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Export of species to islands from sources of differing maturity. Hydrobiologia. 121:103-109.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1983.  Export of species from sources of differing maturities. Association of Southeastern Biologists Bulletin. 30:78(Abstr.
Jr. RWPaul, Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. JCairns, Croxdale JG.  1977.  Evaluation of natural and artificial substrate colonization by scanning electron microscopy. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 96:506-519.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue, Smith N.  1976.  The effects of substrate quality upon colonization by freshwater protozoans. Revista de Biologia. 10(1-4):13-20.
Jr. JCairns, Messenger DI.  1974.  The effects of prior exposure to sublethal concentrations of toxicants upon the tolerance of snails to thermal shock. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 77:441-447.
Jr. JCairns, van der Schalie WHenry, Westlake G.F.  1975.  The effects of lapsed time since feeding upon the toxicity of zinc to fish. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 13(3):269-274.
Dickson KL, Jr. JCairns, Gregg BC, Messenger DI, Plafkin JL, van der Schalie WHenry.  1977.  Effects of intermittent chlorination on aquatic organisms and communities. Journal of Water Pollution Control Federation. 49:35-44.
Jr. JCairns, Paterson RA.  1971.  The effects of heated waste waters upon microbial communities. Water Resources Research in Virginia. 46:121-126.
Jr. JCairns, Hart KM, Henebry MS.  1980.  The effects of a sublethal dose of copper sulfate on the colonization rate of freshwater protozoan communities. The American Midlands Naturalist. 104:93-101.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1980.  The effect of source pool maturity on the process of island colonization: an experimental approach with protozoan communities. Oikos. 35:107-114.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns.  1980.  The effect of island size, distance and epicenter maturity on colonization in freshwater protozoan communities. The American Midlands Naturalist. 104:80-92.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1973.  The effect of an influx of new species on the diversity of protozoan communities. Revista de Biologia. 9:187-206.
Jr. JCairns.  1979.  Ecological considerations in reclaiming surface mined lands. Minerals and the Environment. 1(3):83-89.
Jr. JCairns, Plafkin JL, Kaesler RL, Lowe RL.  1983.  Early colonization patterns of diatoms and protozoans in fourteen freshwater lakes. Journal of Protozoology. 30:47-51.
Jr. JCairns, Ruthven JA, Kaesler RL.  1974.  Distribution of protozoa in a small stream. The American Midlands Naturalist. 92:406-414.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1968.  The distribution of fresh-water protozoa on a relatively homogeneous substrate. Hydrobiologia. 31:65-72.
Stewart PM, Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns, Lowe RL.  1985.  Diatom and protozoan species accrual on artificial substrates in lentic habitats. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 104(4):369-377.
Jr. JCairns.  1975.  Critical species, including man, within the biosphere. Naturwissenschaften. 62(5):193-199.
Jr. JCairns.  1980.  Coping with point source discharges. Fisheries. 5(6):5-8.
Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL, Jr. JCairns.  1978.  Consolidating taxonomic information into a working library. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 97:417-418.
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Jr. WHYongue.  1971.  The consequences of nonselective periodic removal of portions of fresh-water protozoan communities. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 90:71-80.
Smith EP, Genter RB, Jr. JCairns.  1986.  Confidence intervals for the similarity between algal communities. Hydrobiologia. 139:237-245.
Henebry MS, Jr. JCairns, Schwintzer CR, Jr. WHYongue.  1981.  A comparison of vascular vegetation and protozoan communities in some freshwater wetlands of northern lower Michigan. Hydrobiologia. 83:353-375.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns, Jr. HBoatin.  1973.  A comparison of fresh-water protozoan communities in geographically proximate but chemically dissimilar bodies of water. Archiv fur Protistenkunde. 115:154-161.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1976.  A comparison between numbers and kinds of freshwater protozoans colonizing autoclaved and unautoclaved polyurethane substrates. Applied and Environmental Microbiology. 31:750-753.
Jr. WHYongue, Jr. JCairns.  1971.  Colonization of polyurethane substrates by fresh-water protozoans. Journal of the Elisha Mitchell Scientific Society. 87:71-72.
Jr. JCairns, Plafkin JL, Jr. WHYongue, Kaesler RL.  1976.  Colonization of artificial substrates by protozoa: replicated samples. Archiv fur Protistenkunde. 118:259-267.
Pratt JR, Ladzick M, Jr. JCairns.  1987.  Colonization of artificial substrates by micrometazoa. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie. 110:519-531.
Jr. JCairns, Jr. WHYongue.  1966.  A checklist of the fresh-water protozoa of the Douglas Lake region, Michigan. Notulae Naturae of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. 383:1-10.
Jr. JCairns, van der Schalie WHenry.  1980.  Biological monitoring. Part I. Early warning systems. Water Research. 14:1179-1196.
Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Artificial Substrates. Ann Arbor Science Publishers. Ann Arbor, Mich. 279 pp.
Jr. JCairns, Ruthven JA.  1970.  Artificial microhabitat size and the number of colonizing protozoan species. Transactions of the American Microscopical Society. 89:100-109.
Jr. JCairns.  1984.  Are single species toxicity tests alone adequate for estimating environmental hazard? Environmental Monitoring and Assessment. 4(3):259-273.
Jr. JCairns, Calhoun WFord, McGinniss MJ, Straka W.  1976.  Aquatic organisms response to severe stress following acutely sublethal toxicant exposure. Water Resource Bulletin. 12:1233-1243.
Genter RB, Pratt JR, Bowers N, Jr. JCairns.  1989.  Algal and protozoan community response to individual and combined treatment of zinc and phosphate. Current Practices in Environmental Science and Engineering. 4:133-149.
Conference Proceedings
Jr. JCairns, Pratt JR.  1985.  Multispecies toxicity testing using indigenous organisms - a new, cost-effective approach to ecosystem protection. 1985 TAPPI Environmental Conference. :149-159.
Dickson KL, Maki AW, Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Modeling the Fate of Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment. The Fourth Pellston Environmental Workshop. :ix+413.
Jr. JCairns.  1973.  Le maintien de l'equilibre dans les communatis protozoaires d'eau douce. Progress in Protozoology, Proceedings of the 4th International Congress of Protozoology. :74pp..
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1985.  Determining microbial community equilibrium in disturbed wetland ecosystems. Proceedings of the Twelfth Annual Conference on Wetland Restoration. :201-209.
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL.  1973.  Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. The Symposium on Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:256.
Conference Paper
Dickson KL, Maki AW, Jr. JCairns.  1979.  Analyzing the Hazard Evaluation Process. International Workshop on the Application of Hazard Evaluation Programs for Chemicals in the Aquatic Environment.
Book Chapter
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1988.  Use of microbial colonization parameters as a measure of functional response in aquatic ecosystems. Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals. Special Technical Publication 988:55-67.
Pratt JR, Jr. JCairns.  1988.  Use of microbial colonization parameters as a measure of functional response in aquatic ecosystems. Functional Testing of Aquatic Biota for Estimating Hazards of Chemicals. Special Technical Publication 988:55-67.
Jr. JCairns, Sparks R.E, Waller WT.  1973.  A tentative proposal for a rapid in-plant biological monitoring system. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:127-147of256pp..
Jr. JCairns, Sparks R.E, Waller WT.  1973.  A tentative proposal for a rapid in-plant biological monitoring system. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:127-147of256pp..
Jr. JCairns.  1979.  A strategy for use of protozoans in the evaluation of hazardous substances. Biological Indicators of Water Quality. :61-67.
Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Restoration of damaged ecosystems. Research on Fish and Wildlife Habitat. EPA-600/8-82-022:220-239.
Jr. JCairns, Dahlberg M.L, Dickson KL, Smith N, Waller WT.  1983.  The relationship of freshwater protozoan communities to the MacArthur-Wilson equilibrium model. Diversity Hutchinson. :272-287.
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Lanza GR.  1973.  Rapid biological monitoring system for determining aquatic community structure in receiving systems. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:148-163of256pp..
Jr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Lanza GR.  1973.  Rapid biological monitoring system for determining aquatic community structure in receiving systems. Biological Methods for the Assessment of Water Quality. Special Technical Publication 528:148-163of256pp..
Jr. JCairns.  1974.  Protozoans (Protozoa). Pollution Ecology of Freshwater Invertebrates. :1-28.
Jr. JCairns, Kuhn DL, Plafkin JL.  1979.  Protozoan colonization of artificial substrates. Methods and Measurements of Periphyton Communities: A Review. Special Technical Publication 690:34-57.
Jr. JCairns.  1982.  Predictive and reactive systems for aquatic ecosystem quality control. Scientific Basis of Water-Resource Management, Geophysics Study Commission, National Resource Council. :72-84.
Jr. JCairns, Lanza GR.  1972.  Pollution controlled changes in algal and protozoan communities. Water Pollution Microbiology. :245-272.