Diurnal patterns of the bi-directional reflectance of fresh-water ice

TitleDiurnal patterns of the bi-directional reflectance of fresh-water ice
Publication TypeJournal Article
Year of Publication1990
AuthorsLeshkevich GA, Ahmad SP, Eck TF, Deering DW
JournalAnnals of Glaciology

To improve the imterpretation of surface cryospheric albedo from satellite sensor data, diurnal measurements of the spectral bi-directional reflectance of a commonly-found fresh-water ice type were made, from which hemispherical reflectance can be derived. The purpose of this study is to document its clear-sky, bi-directional reflectance characteristics in the visible (650-670 nm) and near-infrared (810-840 nm) region, assess the diurnal nature of the reflectance, and quantify the surface anisotropy. Bi-directional reflectances of the re-frozen slush ice measured show a spectral dependence and change significantly with solzr zenith angle. Considerable variation occurs at each view angle and among view angles throughout the day. Although diurnal reflectance patterns were similar in both bands, magnitudes varied greatly, being highest in the visible and lowest in the near-infrared region. With the exception of peak saturated (specular) values in the forward scatter direction, bi-directional reflectance was generally highest in the morning when the surface and the illumination were most diffuse in character. The exitance computed from nadir radiance (N) is compared to the measured hemispheric exitance (M). The exitance/measured hemispheric exitance ratios, an index of anisotropy, reveal an anisotropy that increases with increasing solar zenith angle and is more pronounced in the near-infrared region.