|Title||Effect of settlement on the vegetation of the University of Michigan Biological Station|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1960|
|Journal||Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters|
Several conclusions as to the effect of settlement on the original vegetation of the Biological Station can be made. First of all, the softwood logging of pine and hemlock on the upland sandy soils of Cheboygan County took place in the interval between 1850 and 1900. The softwood logging of the Biological Station uplands took place most certainly between 1870 and 1880. Aside from the logging of white pine in the hardwood stands and bogs, logging operations in these forest types took place at a later date. For forty years after the original logging, fires occurred at least once a decade, elininating most of the small pines and practically all the hemlocks. In the 1920's, with the area now fire-controlled, the second-growth forest sprang up dominated by bigtooth aspen. Today, most of the older aspen stems are between thirty and fifty years of age, although, as the plant is clonal, the clones may be much older. Each forest stand may well have its own fire history, and care must be taken in transposing fire scar dates from one place to another.