Estimating the Hazard of Chemical Substances to Aquatic Life

TitleEstimating the Hazard of Chemical Substances to Aquatic Life
Publication TypeBook
Year of Publication1978
AuthorsJr. JCairns, Dickson KL, Maki AW
VolumeSpec. Tech. Publ. 657
Number of Pages278
PublisherAmerican Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)

The science of aquatic toxicology is presently in an embryonic, although rapidly evolving, state. The vast majority of testing procedures and protocols now being used to assess the effects of chemical substances on the survival, growth, and reproduction of representative aquatic species were virtually unknown as recently as 10 years ago. The associated risks to aquatic life are being increasingly considered in marketing decisions along with the societal benefits gained from the ultimate use of new chemical substances.