|Title||Spring movements of leopard frogs, Rana pipiens Schreber, in northern Michigan|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1967|
|Journal||The American Midlands Naturalist|
In spring, adult leopard frogs precede the young out of hibernation. During and for several weeks after breeding, frogs of all ages are confined to bodies of water and do not occupy the fields as in summer. Some movement occurs between ponds, involving mainly, perhaps entirely, postbreeding frogs. In 1962, 39% of the adult leopard frogs in one study area were occupying their home ranges within a week after emergence from hibernation in late April; this was possible because extensive spring flooding permitted breeding in normally less wet regions where many animals had summer ranges, and because many animals had summer home ranges adjoining ponds. In contrast, in a second study area where spring flooding was less extensive and where few animals resided near water, frgos did not abandon the ponds and begin moving to their home ranges until late May and early June; movements to the summer ranges in the fields continued throughout June and, for a few stragglers, into early July. Two adult females were trailed as they moved to their home ranges 150 and 400 m from the ponds. Details of their routes are given.