|Title||The structure of the maple-beech association in northern Michigan|
|Publication Type||Journal Article|
|Year of Publication||1924|
|Journal||Papers of the Michigan Academy of Science, Arts and Letters|
1. The hardwood forest of the region is dominated by sugar maple, with beech, birch, elm, and basswood as important co-dominants, the proportions of each depending on the available moisture. 2. The flora of the association includes some two hundred species of vascular plants, of which about a score are regarded as characteristic, and of which many others are chance invaders from neighboring associations or relicts of an earlier occupation of the land by coniferous forest. Hemlock belongs in the latter category. 3. The hardwood forest is still young historically and may have attained its full ecological dominance only one generation (about three centuries) ago.